PALTIEL

PALTIEL (d. 975), astrologer, physician, and statesman at the court of the fatimid caliph al-Muʿizz. Paltiel is referred to in two Hebrew sources. Ahimaaz, his relative, lists him in his genealogy (Megillat Aḥima'aẓ, ed. B. Klar (1944), 35–45), indicating that in 962, with al-Muʿizz's conquest of the south Italian city of Oria, which was Paltiel's birthplace, the caliph was taken with Paltiel's astrological skills and appointed him as his chief aide. The Sefer Ḥasidim of judah b. samuel of Regensburg notes that Paltiel was captured during the conquest of Oria, and that he became the physician of the Fatimid ruler. Ahimaaz describes how during the conquest of egypt by the caliph (969), Paltiel was charged with provisioning the army. It appears that Paltiel was Wāsiṭa (somewhat lower than vizier). He appears to have served as state secretary, or in some similar position, and in connection with this office he handled matters of military administration. Ahimaaz refers to him by the title nagid on three occasions. For this reason, J. Mann and others presume that he was the first to bear this title in Egypt. However, it has already been shown that his public office had no connection with duties performed for his coreligionists, as was the case with a nagid at a later date (S.D. Goitein and M.R. Cohen). M. Ben-Sasson thinks that this story in the Ahimaaz scroll was written under the impression of the existence of the heads of the Jews (negidim) in North Africa. The author of the Ahimaaz scroll gives Paltiel the title nagid, a title that was relevant in the same period to kairouan . He considers Paltiel the first courtier in the Fatimid court, and a leader who worried about the Jewish population. It seems quite clear to robert bonfil that the story of Paltiel as we find it in Sefer Ḥasidim displays more than three consecutive stages of mythologization. But on the other hand it does not seem possible to say exactly how many stages there were, nor to determine exactly when and where they took place. Other scholars have tried to identify Paltiel with well-known personalities of his generation. M.J. de Goeje (in: ZDMG, 52 (1898), 75–80) stated that Paltiel was none other than al-Jawhar, a well-known Fatimid military leader. Thus, he concluded that Jawhar must have been a Jew. D. Kaufmann and W.J. Fischel sought to identify him with a Jewish convert to Islam, Yaʿqūb Ibn Killis , the first of the Fatimid viziers of Egypt. A. Marx maintains the view of de Goeje on the basis of the Sefer Ḥasidim reference. It has been established, however, that neither of these identifications is correct. B. Lewis identified him with Mūsā ibn Eleazar, who was captured during the Fatimid conquest of Oria, and of whom it is known that he became the physician of the caliph al-Muʿizz, and was with him during his conquest of Egypt. A number of Mūsā's medical writings are extant, and he was also a friend of Yaʿqūb ibn Killis. Moshe Gil suggests identifying Paltiel with Faiṣal ben Ṣāliḥ, a Fatimid statesman and military commander. R Bonfil prefers this identification, and thinks that this identification would indeed quite reasonably explain many details that remain obscure in Lewis' hypotheses, but as Gil is well aware, he does find a proper answer to numerous other details. There are opinions of some historians that the story about Paltiel is a legend invented by his family members. According to the Ahimaaz scroll Paltiel donated large sums for the academy sages and for the mourners of the sanctuary in Jerusalem, for the academy of the geonim in Babylon and for the poor and needy of the various communities. He also brought the remains of his parents in caskets to Jerusalem. This scroll also tells that after Paltiel's death, the office of court physician to the Fatimid caliphate was filled for four generations by Paltiel's descendants. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Marx, in: JQR, 1 (1910/11), 78–85; Mann, Egypt, index; Fischel, Islam, 65–68; Neustadt, in: Zion, 4 (1939), 135–43; Hirschberg, ibid., 23–24 (1958/59), 166f.; Hirschberg, Afrikah, 1 (1965), 152–4; Lewis, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 30 (1967), 177–81. ADD BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Gil, Ereẓ Yisrael ba-Tekufah ha-Muselemit ha-Rishonah, 6341099, 1 (1983), 299–302; R. Bonfil, in: M. Fishbane (ed.), The Midrashic Imagination–Jewish Exegesis Thought and History (1993), 228–54; M. Ben-Sasson, Ẓemiḥat ha-Kehillah ha-Yehudit be-Arẓot ha-Islam, Kayrawan 8001057 (1996), 39, 355–57; M. Cohen, Jewish Self-Government in Medieval Egypt (1980), 5, 12–27; M. Gil, Jews in Islamic Countries in the Middle Ages (2004), index. (Abraham David / Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paltiel —    Deliverance of God, the prince of Issachar who assisted to divide the land by inheritance (Num. 34:26) …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Paltiel Daykan — (Hebrew: פלטיאל דייקן; (born 12 May 1885; died 12 February 1969) was an Israeli jurist. Contents 1 Early life 2 Awards 3 References 4 See also …   Wikipedia

  • Ahimaaz ben Paltiel — Ahimaatz ben Paltiel Aḥimaatz ben Paltiel (en hébreu: אחימעץ בן פלטיאל) est un poète liturgique juif italien (Capoue, 1017 Oria, 1060), auteur d une chronique familiale, abondamment utilisée comme source pour la période qu il décrit (de 850 jusqu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ahimaatz ben Paltiel — Aḥimaatz ben Paltiel (en hébreu: אחימעץ בן פלטיאל) est un poète liturgique juif italien (Capoue, 1017 Oria, 1060), auteur d une chronique familiale, abondamment utilisée comme source pour la période qu il décrit (de 850 jusqu à la date de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ahimaaz ben Paltiel — ( he. אחימעץ בן פלטיאל) was an Italian Jewish liturgical poet and author of a family chronicle. He was born in Capua, Italy, in 1017 and died about 1060 in Oria. Very little is known about his life. He came of a family some of whose members are… …   Wikipedia

  • Julius Paltiel — (4 July 1924 – 7 March 2008) was one of the 26 Norwegian Jews who returned from Auschwitz. During WWII During the Second World War, Paltiel s family ran a textile company in Trondheim. On 6 October 1942, he and his family were arrested and sent… …   Wikipedia

  • Chaim Paltiel (Paltiel of Falaise) — Chaim Paltiel (known as Paltiel of Falaise) was a French Biblical commentator of the thirteenth century and grandson of the tosafist Samuel of Falaise (Sir Morel). An anonymous commentator on the Pentateuch (Munich MS. No. 62) frequently quotes… …   Wikipedia

  • ḤAYYIM PALTIEL BEN JACOB — (late 13th–early 14th century), German talmudic scholar. Ḥayyim Paltiel was a pupil of eliezer of Touques, and also, apparently, of meir b. baruch of Rothenburg. He traveled through the cities of Bohemia and served as rabbi of Magdeburg. His… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL — (b. 1017), chronicler and poet of Capua, south Italy. In 1054 when he removed to Oria, the place of origin of his family, he compiled Megillat Yuḥasin ( The Scroll of Genealogies ), also known as Megillat Aḥima aẓ ( The Ahimaaz Scroll or the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Achimaats ben Paltiel — (hebr. אחימעץ בן פלטיאל,‎ * 1017 in Capua; † 1060 in Oria) war ein jüdisch liturgischer Dichter und Autor einer historisch wertvollen Familienchronik. Achimaats war Spross einer großen Gelehrtenfamilie und schrieb in der Megillat Achimaats (… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.